warningsign So - A Substitute

Among its many uses, the word so is used to substitute words or phrases in order to avoid repeating oneself.



1) In short answers-especially with the verbs:appear, assume, be afraid , believe, expect, guess, hope, imagine, presume, reckon, seem, suppose, think.

-Are we becoming softer? It seems so (so=we are becoming softer) - ¿Nos estamos volviendo más tiernos?- lo parece

-Is John ok? - I hope so (so= he is ok) ¿John está bien? - Espero que sí


2) Do so 

Do so is preferred where the subject and the verb are the same as the ones referred to previously or subsequently. Do so is also a more formal alternative to leaving out the auxiliary altogether.1

John always arrived late, and he continues to do so (do so=arrive late) — John siempre llegaba tarde, y sigue haciéndolo

If safe to do so, move your vehicle onto the hard shoulder — Si es seguro, pon tu coche en el arcén

Those Jews who wish to adhere to the Jewish religion will be free to do so — Los judíos que desean ser fiel a la religión judía serán libres de hacerlo

Assad has said he will step down if asked to (do so— Assad ha dicho que dejará su cargo si se lo piden


3) So with reporting verbs

-They say there is a recession - So I´ve heard Dicen que hay una recesión - Eso he oído

-John cheats on his wife - So they say — John le pone los cuernos a su mujer - Eso dicen

4) More/less so

My mum is fat, but my dad more so  Mi madre es gorda pero mi padre más


5) So - In a similar manner 1

Where Nintendo had carved a path, so trod Japanese anime Por donde Nintendo había abierto el camino, pasó el anime japonés 

Just as you like to have a night out with the lads, so I like to go out with the girls now and again Al igual que te gusta pasar una noche de marcha con tus amigos, a mi me gusta salir con las chicas de vez en cuando

As the father has lived, so lives the son Tal como ha vivido el padre, vive el hijo 


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